Abstract: ZnO nanowires are recently used in optoelectronic devices such as sensors, solar cells, and light emitting diodes due to its unique optical and electrical properties. In such devices, a contact between the ZnO nanowires and a metal electrode exists. Hence understanding electrical characteristic between the ZnO nanowires and a metal electrode can facilitate optoelectronic device design. In this work, ZnO nanowires were grown on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) substrates using a hydrothermal method. Simple devices using the nanowires sandwiched between the ITO and a metal contact (i.e. Au, Al) were fabricated and characterized by a current-voltage measurement. Moreover, studies on p-n junctions between the ZnO nanowires and p-type polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO), were also fabricated and characterized. The current-voltage measurement of devices clearly shows the rectifying behavior, which is an important characteristic of diodes.
Abstract: We examined structural properties of nitrogen doped (ZnO:N) thin films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering technique in conjunction with gas timing method. The deposited films were polycrystalline ZnO in wurtzite structure. Morphology of the ZnO:N films could be modified by adjusting gas timing conditions. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis showed that incorporation of nitrogen may cause structural distortion in the ZnO:N crystal.
Abstract: We report on the study on effect of Ga pre-deposition rate on GaAs nanowires grown by self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. Ga droplets were initially deposited on the surface of Si(111) substrates covered with thin layer of SiO2. The nanowires were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Dependency of structural of nanowires on Ga pre-deposition rate is investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD). The experimental results show that the different in Ga pre-deposition rate significantly affect the surface morphology of samples. Growth rate and the density of nanowires strongly depends on the Ga pre-deposition rate.
Abstract: The GaAs nanowires are grown on Si (111) substrates by Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. The effect of SiO2 thickness on the structural properties of GaAs nanowires is investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The nucleation of GaAs nanowires related to the presence of a SiO2 layer previously coated on Si substrate. The results show that the density, length, and diameter of GaAs nanowires strongly depend on the oxidation time (or SiO2 thickness).
Abstract: We prepared n-type nanocrystalline iron disilicide (NC-FeSi2)/intrinsic (i) ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon composite (UNCD/a-C)/p-type Si heterojunctions and evaluated as photodiodes. UNCD/a-C and NC-FeSi2 films were deposited by coaxial arc plasma deposition and pulsed laser deposition, respectively. The capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of heterojunctions were measured at room temperature. The inserted i-UNCD/a-C layer to form pin heterojunctions reduced the capacitance and dark current as compared with those in the case of pn heterojunctions. The build-in potential of heterojunctions was estimated to be 1.2 eV. The prepared heterojunctions showed typical rectifying action and a response for an illumination with a 6 mW, 1.31 μm laser. The recombination process is the predominant mechanism of current transport in the heterojunctions. The dynamic resistance area product and detectivity were 1.54 × 103 Ω cm2 and 5.0 × 108 cmHz1/2/W at-1 V. The evident improvement in the device performance was demonstrated, which should be due to the reduction of dark current by i-UNCD/a-C layer.
Abstract: Nanostructured porous silicon layer were successfully formed by an anodization method in viscous electrolyte containing glycerol and NH4F solution. P-type (100) silicon wafers were anodized with various anodizing times (1-8 h), NH4F concentrations (0.5-3 M) and applied voltages (10-30 V). The current density characteristic during anodizing and the morphology of porous silicon were measured using data acquisition loggers and field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), respectively. The anodized surface produced high surface roughness and showed two types of porous structures consisting of macropores (macro-PSi) and mesopores (meso-PSi). The meso-Psi located in the macro-PSi structures. The size of macro-PSi increased with the increase of anodization time, the decrease of NH4F concentration and the decrease of applied voltage. The average diameter and depth of macro-PSi varied from 0.34 to 1.40 μm and 54 to 446 nm, respectively. For the meso-PSi, this method can produce an average diameter and thickness of mesopores in the range of 19-33 nm and 52-157 nm, respectively.
Abstract: This research is related to growth and characterizations of indium-doped pentacene thin films as a novel hybrid material. Doped films were prepared by thermal co-evaporation under high vacuum. The doping concentration was varied from 0% to 50% by controlling the different deposition rate between these two materials while the total thickness was fixed at 100 nm. The hybrid thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy to reveal the physical and optical properties. Moreover, the electrical properties of ITO/indium-doped-pentacene/Al devices i.e. charge mobility and carrier concentration were determined by considering the relationship between current-voltage and capacitance-voltage. AFM results identify that doping of indium into pentacene has an effect on surface properties of doped films i.e. the increase of surface grain size. XRD results indicate that doping of metal into pentacene has an effect on preferential orientation of pentacene’s crystalline domains. UV-Vis spectroscopy results show evolution of absorbance at photon energy higher than 2.7 eV corresponding to absorption from oxide of indium formed in the films. Electrical measurements exhibit higher conductivity in doped films resulting from increment of both charge carrier mobility and carrier concentration. Furthermore, chemical interactions taken place inside the doped films were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to complete the remaining questions i.e. how do indium atoms interact with the neighbor molecules?, what is the origin of the absorption at E > 2.7 eV? Further results and discussions will be presented in the publication.
Abstract: Tin-doped nickel phthalocyanine thin films (Sn-doped NiPc) were deposited by thermal co-evaporation method. Doping concentration of tin in NiPc was controlled via different deposition rates between metal dopent and host organic material. Properties of the thin films doped by tin in the range of 3 to 15% were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, electrical properties of Al/Sn-doped-NiPc/ITO devices i.e. charge carrier concentration and carrier mobility were characterized by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. Microscopic results show clear evidence of the morphological transition from granular structure in undoped-film to rod-liked structure in the films doped more than 5%. Moreover, surface grain size exhibits the tendency to decrease with the increase of doping concentration. Optical properties reveal that the packing of NiPc molecules in all doping conditions is the combination of α-phase (majority) and β-phase (minority). However, evolution of β-phase NiPc is observed with the increase of doping concentration. Photoelectron analyses indicate shift of binding energy in both Ni2p and Sn3d levels corresponding to charge transfer between nickel-core and tin dopant. In addition, the electrical properties show the enhancement of the film’s conductivity due to the increase of charge carrier concentration with the higher Sn-doping level.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop the synthetic procedure of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by using surfactant-assisted solvothermal technique in order to produce highly uniform nanosize of ZnO particles. The solvothermal reaction evidently produces smaller ZnO particle sizes compared with those obtained from hydrothermal reaction. The zwitterionic surfactant is employed in this work and it typically works well under extremely conditions i.e. high pH levels, strong electrolytes, and high temperature. The key success of surfactant utilization in the solvothermal reaction is to create reversed micelles which act as nanoreactors or templates. Because micelle consist of polar cores that may occupy a finite amount of water forming a water pool for ZnO nanomaterial synthesis. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solvothermal reaction at 180°C and 18 hours in a hydrothermal reactor. The ZnO colloidal particles were separated by paper filter and cellulose nitrate membrane, respectively. The XRD pattern shows that the structure of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles is hexagonal wurtzite and the use of surfactant does not interfere the crystal growth and structure. The particle size distribution reveals a high uniform ZnO nanoparticles obtained via this method. The UV absorption spectrum of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by this method presents exciton peak at approximate value of 365 nanometers. The energy band gap determined by Tauc plot is 3.31 eV. Moreover, TEM images confirm the particle size consistency showing the morphology of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles.