Thermal Properties and Mechanical Performance of Unsaturated Polyester/Phenolic Blends Reinforced by Kenaf Fiber


Article Preview

In this study, unsaturated polyester resin (UP) is blended with resole type phenolic resin (PF) to develop a material with good flame retardancy. The UP/PF resin blends are expected to show good compatibility when compounded with natural fibers which in this research is kenaf fiber. The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The char yields of the UP/PF blends reinforced kenaf composite increased with PF content. The degradation temperature of the composite at 50% weight loss rose to 410.13°C as the PF content was increased to 40%. The result shows with additional of PF to UP resin enhance the thermal stability of the composite. Meanwhile the mechanical performance of UP/PF kenaf composite were evaluated and compared with neat UP and PF reinforced with kenaf fiber using tensile and impact testing. The mechanical properties of all resin blends at different mixing proportions slightly decrease by increasing the phenolic content but shown an improvement as compared to the PF kenaf fiber composite. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile testing samples of the composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).



Edited by:

Rozana Mohd Dahan, Ahmad Zafir Romli, Dr. Mohd Rozi Ahmad and Dzaraini Kamarun




M. Mohd Mahadar et al., "Thermal Properties and Mechanical Performance of Unsaturated Polyester/Phenolic Blends Reinforced by Kenaf Fiber", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1134, pp. 61-65, 2016

Online since:

December 2015




[1] K. Dai, L. Song, Y. Hu. High. Perform. Polym., 2013; 25(8), 938-946.

[2] H. T. Chiu, S. H. Chiu, R.E. Jeng, J.S. Chung. Polym. Degrad. and Stab., 2000; 70(3), 505-514.

[3] T. Hao, Z. Xiao-bai, L. Xiao-lu. Procedia Engineering., 2013; 52, 336-341.

[4] L. L. Pan, G. Y. Li, Y. C. Su, J. S, Lian. Polym. Degrad. and Stab., 2012; 97, 1801-1806.

[5] Y. F. Shih, R. J. Jeng. Polym. Degrad. and Stab., 2002; 77, 67-76.

[6] S. Nazare, B. K. Kandola, A. R. Horrocks. Polym. for Advanced Technologies, 2006; 17(4), 294-303.

[7] H. T. Chiu, R. E. Jeng, J. S. Chung. J. of Appl. Polym. Science, 2004; 91(2), 1041-1058.

[8] S. H. Aziz, M. P. Ansell. Composites Sciences and Technology, 2004; 64, 1219-1230.

[9] ASTM International. ASTM D-1037-99. PA, United States, (2004).

[10] C. L. Chiang, C-C. M. Ma. Polym. Degrad. and Stab., 2004; 83, 207-214.

[11] P. S. Parameswaran, M. G. Bhuvaneswary, E. T. Thachil. J. of Appl. Polym. Science, 2009; 113, 802-810.

[12] H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, P. Firoozian, I. O. Bakare, H. M. Akil, A. M. Noor. Mater. and Des, 2010; 31, 3419-3425.