Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes

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Authors: Jami Madhukiran, Ch. Ramabhadri Raju, S. Madhusudan, R. Umamaheswara Rao
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties of Banana-Pineapple natural fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The hybrid combination of fibers with various weight fractions i.e. (40/0, 30/10, 20/20, 10/30 and 0/40) are incorporated into the epoxy LY556 and HY951and hand layup technique is used for fabrication. Initially fibers are cut to a length of 5mm and weight percentagesare determined. Banana fiber was hybridized with Pineapple fiber. While overall fiber weight fraction was fixed as 0.4Wf. Tensile, Flexural and Impact specimens are prepared according to ASTM standards. The Dog-bone shaped specimens are prepared for tensile test. Tensile testing was conducted on 5 ton universal testing machine (FIE Make). Flat bar and V-notch shaped specimens are prepared for conducting Flexural, Impact tests.The results are compared with pure Banana and pure Pineapple. Tensile, Flexural and Impact properties of Hybrid Composites are improved as compared to pure composites. The interfacial relationships between the fiber and matrix, internal cracks, fiber pullout, fiber dispersion into the matrix and the inner surfaces of the specimens are examined through SEM analysis.
Authors: Vemu Vara Prasad
Abstract: — The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties and water absorption capacity of carbon and basalt fibers mixed with epoxy. At present there is demand for natural friendly products. Basalt reinforced composites developed recently and these mineral amorphous fibres are a valid alternative to carbon fibers for their lower cost and to glass fibres for their strength. The present paper describes briefly on basalt and carbon fibers (unidirectional) which are used as reinforcement material for composites. The matrix epoxy (LY556-HY 951) is taken in to account to access to influence on the evaluated parameters. In order to use reinforced composites for structural applications, it is necessary to perform a mechanical characterization. With this aim experiments like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and water absorptions are performed. Later the mechanical properties obtained from experiments are compared with ANSYS software results. Keywords—Carbon fibre; Basalt fibre; Uni-directional fibres; Reinforcement, Mechanical Tests, Water Absorption Tests
Authors: T. Victor Babu, S. Santosh Kumar, Pala Srinivas Reddy
Abstract: Fibre reinforced composite materials are demanded by the industry especially for the applications where weight reduction is critical because of their high specific strength, ability to resist corrosion. The present work aims on evaluation of various mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites (GFRP) with inclusion of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) in different weight fractions. Before performing the tests, the specimens were allowed to immerse in fresh water and sea water simultaneously for a period of 11 days (110 Hours) under hydrostatic pressure and further observing the amount of moisture content that has been accumulated in the specimens if any. This type of material can be used in marine industries as an alternative material for fabrication of hull of a ship and also used to design and fabricate various components of a ship.
Authors: G. Siva Karuna, S.Venu Gopala Swamy, G. Swami Naidu
Abstract: In the present days, hybrid metal matrix composites exhibit the better mechanical properties when compared with the uni-reinforced metal matrix composites. Due the light weight and improved mechanical properties these materials find the better applications in the area of aerospace and automobiles. The present investigation aims to evaluate the mechanical properties of Aluminum 2024 T351 reinforced with Blast Furnace Slag and Red Mud. Composites with industrial wastes like blast furnace slag and red mud as reinforcements are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications. Blast Furnace Slag particulates are reinforced in AA2024 by decreasing 4 to 1% by weight. Red Mud particulates are reinforced in AA2024 by increasing 1 to 4% by weight. The composites are synthesized by using the stir casting technique. The mechanical properties are optimized for the composite with 2% Blast furnace slag and 3% Red Mud. Micro structural studies carried out using SEM, reveals the uniform distribution of the reinforcement in the matrix phase.
Authors: Vemu Vara Prasad, Tanna Eswara Rao
Abstract: Now a day’s eco-friendly natural fiber used as the reinforcement for the fabrication of the light weight, lower cost and biodegradable polymer matrix composites. One of such available natural reinforcement for the composite material is basalt fiber. The present paper gives a review on how the basalt fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite behave when they are adhesively, riveted and hybrid joined with other reinforcements such as aluminum, which is used for the particular or other applications and which joint gives better efficiency , suited for given application were discussed and the three joining techniques were investigated. Behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composites for the frequencies at which frequencies the failures like adhesive failure, light fiber tear, and mixed failure modes will occur. These three types of failure modes are investigated with the help of acoustic emission monitoring system.
Authors: Vemu Vara Prasad, Javisseti Nageswara Rao
Abstract: Among various composites available for use, carbon fiber reinforced composite is unique in its Nature. Carbon fiber is an extremely strong thin fiber made by pyrolyzing synthetic fibers, such as rayon, until charred. High Strength Composites are made from this fiber by using appropriate matrix material mostly Epoxy resins are used. High Strength, stiffness, light weight and high thermal conductivity are the main advantages over the other composites. Making products with one single composite sheet is not possible always. Some of the intricate or complex shape making is required for joining of two composite sheet. The composites joining can be done in three ways mainly Adhesive, Riveting and Hybrid. Based on the Review among all these joints adhesive joining gives better economic solution in joining. Experimental results point to significant influence of fibre on mechanical properties of sample. The tensile test of the acoustic signal emission (AE) to identify the current state of material integrity in real time. Acoustic system signal correlated to damage events. The carbon fiber composite characteristic failure mechanisms are initiated on the microscale and result in a spontaneous release of elastic energy in terms of mechanical stress waves, the so-called acoustic emissions.
Authors: Pala Srinivas Reddy, T. Victor Babu, S. Santosh Kumar
Abstract: Fiber reinforced plastics have been widely used for manufacturing aircrafts and spacecrafts structural parts because of their high mechanical, physical properties. These are used in manufacturing of structural composites, printed circuit boards and in a wide range of special-purpose products which are included in medical field as well. Within reinforcing materials chopped strand mats are the most frequently used in structural constructions because of their properties such as viscoelasticity, strength and high thermal stability. The present work focuses on mechanical and thermal properties of chopped strand mat reinforced with polyester resin and filler as graphite powder (which has high melting point) in different weight fractions. Evaluation of material properties is tested using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis and Dynamic Mechanical analysis at a standard temperature ranging between 20°C - 460°C and evaluated. The results show that inclusion of graphite powder in chopped strand mat exhibit better enhancement in results when compared.
Authors: V. Joshua Jaya Prasad, Puli Suresh Kumar
Abstract: Recently, there has been an exponential growth in research and innovation in the natural fiber composites (NFC) due to their diversified applications in the field of engineering. Biodegradability, light weight, formability and availability at low cost are the attractive merits of the natural fibers. Mechanical, Thermal and Machinabilty properties of Natural fiber composites have their own advantage and adoptability in the field of automobile, power plants, aeronautical, defense and naval applications. This review aims to provide an overview of the comparison of differ types of Natural fiber composites, factors that affect the mechanical, thermal and machinabilty of NFCs and their engineering applications.
Authors: S. Naseema, B. Gaurav, G. Das, V.C. Srivatsava, K. Srinivas Rao, K. Gopala Krishna
Abstract: Wear-resistant low alloy steels containing elements like Cr, Mo, attain their properties due to precipitation of carbides upon heat treatment. These steels are widely used for components in earthmoving and mining equipment. Even though the mechanical properties and wear behaviour of these steels are studied extensively, the studies on nature of carbide precipitation and their influence on corrosion behaviour are very rare. The present work attempts to correlate the microstructure with corrosion properties of low alloy wear resistant steel. After quenching from hot working temperature of about 900 °C, the alloy is subjected to tempering at two different temperatures i.e. 150 °C & 300 °C for durations of 1 h and 4 h. Two competitive process occur simultaneously effecting the hardness of the alloy during tempering i.e. (i) Softening due to transformation of martensite with depleting carbon (ii) Increase in hardness due to formation of carbide precipitates in the matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of as quenched condition revealed fully martensite structure in the alloy. TEM investigation of 150 °C/ 4 h tempering condition, revealed presence of some amount of martensite and fine carbide precipitates in the alloy. TEM micrographs of 300 °C/ 4 h condition revealed relatively coarse carbides in a softer ferrite matrix. The presence of martensite and fine precipitates, resulted in relative improvements in wear and corrosion resistance respectively, for the alloy tempered at 150 °C for 4 h, when compared to the alloy tempered at 300 °C for 4 h.

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