Montmorillonite (MMT) was modified by octadecylamine (ODA) surfactant. The surfactant contents were varied, i.e. 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 times the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the MMT. XRD and FTIR spectra of the organoclay revealed that ODA molecules intercalated into MMT layers. The MMT-ODA was melt-mixed with natural rubber (NR) using a two roll mill. Effects of surfactant content and organoclay content on cure characteristics, mechanical properties, and morphologies of NR nanocomposites were investigated. Morphologies of the NR nanocomposites, with increasing surfactant content, revealed the exfoliated structure and the good dispersion of the organoclay in the NR matrix. These caused the enhancement of mechanical properties of the NR nanocomposites. With increasing the MMT-ODA2 content up to 5 phr, scorch time and cure time of the NR nanocomposites decreased while their tensile strength increased.