Contrasts between the Acoustic Emission Signals Generated by Monopole Versus Dipole Sources
Acoustic emission (AE) practitioners routinely use surface pencil lead breaks (monopoles) to observe expected AE signal characteristics. In contrast, stress-generated AE sources are almost universally composed of dipoles. Thus, understanding the primary differences between the signals generated by these two different source classes is of key importance. This research had the goal of analyzing and contrasting the AE signals generated by monopole and dipole sources. A finite-element-modeled database of AE signals provided an ideal means to study these two source types. The AE signals represented the top-surface out-of-plane displacement versus time from point sources inside an aluminum plate 4.7 mm thick. In addition, monopole sources both on the plate top surface and the edge surface were included in the database. The AE signals were obtained from both in-plane and out-of-plane monopole and dipole sources. Results were analyzed with both a 100 to 300 kHz bandpass filter and a 40 kHz high-pass filter. The wide-plate specimen domain effectively eliminated edge reflections from interfering with the direct signal arrivals.
R. Pullin, K.M. Holford, S.L. Evans and J.M. Dulieu-Barton
M. A. Hamstad, "Contrasts between the Acoustic Emission Signals Generated by Monopole Versus Dipole Sources", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 13-14, pp. 61-68, 2006