Increasingly historic masonry buildings are subjected to higher levels of traffic and rail vibrations due to urbanization and population growth. Deterioration and destabilisation of these buildings may result, especially if they were previously damaged (e.g. earthquakes or settlement problems). To better understand building response, vibration measurements were conducted on the Little Hagia Sophia Mosque, located adjacent to Istanbul’s Sirkeci-Halkali railway line. Transport-induced vibrations were recorded at several points on the ground and building. Attenuation characteristics in the ground and amplification features on the building were examined. Peak particle velocities often exceeded previously established thresholds for human perception and in some cases for structural damage. These are evaluated with respect to the building’s condition.