In this paper, a surgical blade inspecting system is designed and researched, which can automatic test and determine eligibility according to tolerances. High precision and non-contact detection of surgical blades based on machine vision is realized by using camera with telecentric lens to obtain the image of surgical blades, by applying template matching technique to automatic match surgical blades. One-dimensional edge of sub-pixel accuracy is extracted by combining the edge filtering of the Deriche filter and parabolic fitting for the maximum range from edge. It can be used for precise measurement of different part of surgical blades with different sizes. Extensive experiments showed that measuring range is from 2mm ~ 50mm, measuring accuracy is 10μm and average detection time is 0.6s. Thus the inspection system is fast, accurate and robust to fulfill the industrial demands.