Intelligent health monitoring system of the long-span railway cable-stayed bridge requires the comprehensive knowledge of instrumentation, analytical and information processing technologies with the knowledge and experiences in design, construction, operation and maintenance of railway cable-stayed bridge for long-term monitoring the performance throughout its lifecycle. It is necessary to perform sensor-based structural monitoring for identifying the bridge conditions in order to assure the structural safety and to evaluate the operational performance. The considerations for deploying a proper monitoring system are appropriate sensor instrumentation, robust signal acquisition, reliable signal processing, and intelligent signal and information processing. The experience on developing an autonomous monitoring system in the one certain railway cable-stayed bridge newly constructed is introduced in this paper. Sensor and hardware instrumentation, signal transmission, signal acquisition and analysis are schematically described mainly. Experience through this work will be worthwhile lessons for other similar efforts.