Degradation Behaviour of Metallic Biomaterials for Degradable Stents
The short-term need of scaffolding function of stent and the prevention of potential longterm complication of permanently implanted stent have directed to the original idea of biodegradable stent. Selecting and developing materials showing appropriate mechanical and degradation properties are key steps for the development of this new class of medical devices. Therefore, the study of their in vitro degradation behaviour is mandatory for the selection of potential candidate materials suited in vivo. In this work, the degradation behaviour of current studied biodegradable metals including three magnesium alloys (Mg, AM60B and AZ91D), pure iron and Fe-35Mn was investigated. The tests were performed in a simulated blood plasma solution at 37±0.1 oC, using three different methods; potentiodynamic polarization, static immersion, and dynamic test in a test-bench which mimics the flow condition in human coronary artery. Degradation rate was determined as ion release rate measured by using atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) and also estimated from weight loss and corrosion current. Surface morphology and chemical composition of corroded specimens were analyzed by using SEM/EDS. The three degradation methods provide consistent results in corrosion tendency, where Mg showed the highest corrosion rate followed by AZ91D, AM60B, Fe-35Mn and iron. Potentiodynamic polarization gives a rapid estimation of corrosion behaviour and rate. Static immersion test shows the effect of time on the degradation rate and behaviour. Dynamic test provides the closest approach to the environment after stent implantation and its results show the effect of the flow on the materials degradation. In conclusion, the three investigated methods can be applied for screening, selecting and validating materials for degradable stent application before going further to in vivo assessments.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer and C. Ravindran
H. Hermawan et al., "Degradation Behaviour of Metallic Biomaterials for Degradable Stents", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 15-17, pp. 113-118, 2007