Oxide Scales Grown on Stainless Steels during Simulated Reheat
including, external oxide layers, internal grain boundary oxidation structures as well as many other forms of internal oxidation. During the present study, needle like grains of hematite have been observed within the top layers of a number of external oxide scales formed during simulated reheat of 316L stainless steel. It is believed that these needles are caused by the decomposition of an iron rich spinel (approximated to magnetite) along a preferred crystal direction within the spinel grains. The needles have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer and C. Ravindran
M.A.E. Jepson et al., "Oxide Scales Grown on Stainless Steels during Simulated Reheat", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 15-17, pp. 792-797, 2007