Five series SnO2/C Morph-genetic composite materials were prepared using ramie fiber as biological templates, Sn(OH)4 sol as impregnant, and phenolic resin as supplementary adhesive. The influences of calcination temperature, holding time, and phenolic resin treatment on the mechanical wear property of the SnO2/C morph-genetic materials were studied. The results showed that when the calcination temperature reached 630 and holding time increased, SnO2 was reduced by C and CO to needle-like flakes and pellet mixed SnO/SnO2 tissue, and their pinning and supportive effects significantly increased wear resistance of the samples. Glass Carbon derived from phenolic resin decomposition and ramie carbon were difficult to distinguish, but glass carbon had obvious supportive and strengthening effects on ramie carbon walls. With the formation of homogeneous carbon membrane in the process of friction, the alternative distribution of soft carbon and hard carbon could effectively improve wear resistance of the matrix ramie carbon.