The total amount of heavy metal in Ming and Qing dynasties smelted residue was analyzed. Also leaching solution’s acute toxicity of heavy metal in waste residue was discussed.The results showed that the residual quantity of heavy metal(zinc and plumbum) in residue was up to 6.97%. After several hundred years of lixiviation by rainwater, heavy metal (zinc and plumbum) which had released to circumstance was more than 1.71%.Heavy metal in ancient leaching has declined and Residue in Zn is only a very small part of the leaching, Pb leaching below the detection limit ,Cr, and Cd there was leachingonly a small amount .According to pre-test results, limiting test method was adopted to carry out acute toxicity test on waste residue’s leaching solution.The results of acute toxicity test showed that acute oral LD50(median lethal doses) in mice of waste residue’s leaching solution was bigger than 20ml/kg.bw. Mice in the experiment appeared no dead and no abnormal behavior. But mice significantly decreased bodyweight gain. At the end of the experiment, mice were anatomical examined for liver and kidney. No abnormal change was found. It was no significant difference compared with the control group. It showed that residual quantity of heavy metal in residue was high. Although reduce the leaching toxicity, but the acute toxicity harm still existed.