In this paper, the cellulose whisker/silk fibroin (CW/SF) aqueous solution with different composition was obtained by a dialysis against polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution at room temperature. The rheological behavior of CW/SF solution was investigated and the reinforced CW/SF hybrid fibres were prepared by a dry-wet spinning method. The results showed that the spinnability was better for the CW/SF solution according to the calculation of flowing characteristic index. The cellulose whiskers were dispersed homogeneously in the silk matrix. Moreover, it could be found that the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the hybrid fibers were improved with the increase of cellulose whisker content, which reached the maximum when the cellulose whisker content was 5 wt%. Compared with the pure silk fiber, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the CW/SF hybrid fibers containing 5 wt% CWs were increased from 135.78±12.73 MPa and 5.74±0.43 GPa to 438.68±22.63 MPa and 17.36±2.04 GPa, respectively.