Controlled anatase TiO2 was grown on cellulose surface using a fragile hydrothermal method in different conditions. With the analysis of FTIR spectra, the grown TiO2 was chemically attached to the cellulose surface. The morphologies and amount of grown TiO2 on cellulose surface could be controlled through the adjustment of reacting factors. From the observation of SEM images, the morphology and content of TiO2 grown on cellulose surface could be controlled under appropriate reaction conditions. Under the regulation of reactant conditions, the content ranging from 8.7%-34.2% of TiO2 could be grown on cellulose surface.