A two-dimensional orthogonal thermal-mechanical finite element model by Deform2D finite element analysis software is established in the article. By the adaptive meshing technique, not only cutting process but also the effect on the process of aluminum alloy Al6061-T6 processing as friction coefficient changing is simulated. The simulation shows that the friction coefficient has significant effect on the cutting temperature and cutting force, and the effect is nonlinear. With the increasing of the friction coefficient, the cutting temperature and cutting force will both increase. The impact the friction coefficient has on the surface residual stress is much smaller than the impact on the cutting temperature and cutting force.