High-efficiency abrasive machining is one of the important technology of advanced manufacture. Combined with raw and finishing machining, it can attain high removal rate like turning, milling and planning. The difficult-to-grinding materials can also be ground by means of this method with high performance. In the present paper, development status and latest progresses on high efficiency abrasive machining technologies relate to high speed and super-high speed grinding, high efficiency deep-cut grinding, hard and brittle materials high-efficiency grinding, powerful grinding and belt grinding were summarized. The efficiency and parameters range of these abrasive machining processes were compared. The key technologies of high efficiency abrasive machining, including grinding wheel, spindle and bearing, grinder, coolant supplying, installation and orientation of wheel and workpiece and safety defended, as well as intelligent monitor and NC grinding were investigated.