The use of fly ashes for cement-replacement purposes, especially in high volumes, decreases rate of early strength development of the steam curing concrete. To resolve it, this paper developed a new steam-cured concrete incorporating fly ash and a chemical activator (gypsum). Experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties at early and later ages of steam and standard curing concretes. The corresponding mechanism was also discussed by testing the microstructure of concretes. Results indicate that the demoulding compressive strength of steam curing concrete with 4% gypsum dosage can meet production requirements, and compressive strength of this concrete at later ages increase well. Compared with that of ordinary pure cement steam-cured concrete, concrete with 4% gypsum has a higher compressive strength gain rate. At an early age, addition of the gypsum can distinctly accelerate the extent of hydration of the steam curing fly ash cement systems, and thus the microstructure of concrete becomes denser. However, in standard curing condtion, the effect of gypsum is not distinct.