Foam concrete is provided with light weight, thermal insulation, sound insulation and fire resistance, good seismic performance and other characteristics. To improve properties of foam concrete microstructure is studied with the help of fractal theory, fractal dimension related to mechanical properties and thermal performance of foam concrete is calculated by MATLAB language program. The results indicate that the microstructure of foam concrete showed significant fractal character, the fractal dimension is between 1.3 and 2.0. Apparent density, 28d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of fly ash and foaming agent content, fractal dimension increased. Formulas of fractal dimension and the fly ash, foaming agent content were established. Foam concrete with low density, high strength, and good thermal insulation property will be prepared conducted by the formulas.