Rabbit hair is an important animal fiber in China, making up 90% of the total output in the world. Fuds is one of familiar problems in the processing of rabbit hair, which lead to plenty of waste fibers. Recently, there has been interest in converting protein fibers into powder to develop their new uses. This provides great opportunities for waste rabbit hair. In this study, rabbit hair powders have been produced and the structure and properties were characterized at multi-level. Surface morphology of rabbit hair powders was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the majority of rabbit hair powders appear to be small fibrous particles. The FTIR spectrum of rabbit hair and rabbit hair powders was detected. Although no new chemical bonds were produced in the rabbit hair powders, the result showed that some absorbing peaks of rabbit hair powder become stronger than that of rabbit hair. Absorption of rabbit hair powders was also investigated. The result showed that rabbit hair powder had higher moisture retention rate than that of rabbit hair, wool fiber and cotton fiber. Moreover, rabbit hair powder showed remarkable sorption ability for metal ions. The characterization of rabbit hair powder will provide useful basal data for the further application of rabbit hair in novel areas.