Annealing treatment of cold compression deformation red copper was heated by microwave. The feasibility of microwave heating technology applied to heat treatment of metallic materials, and the effect of annealing process on microstructure were discussed. The results show that the phenomenon of arc discharge do not occur during the process of microwave heating red copper, which illustrates that microwave can be used as heat source for heat treatment of metallic materials. When annealing condition is 510°C for 30min, the grains of deformation red copper undergo a transition from fibrous grain to equiaxial grain, and it completes recrystallization. Compared with traditional annealing treatment, microwave annealing treatment can prevent oxidation phenomenon of specimen surface effectively, reduce annealing temperature, shorten heating and holding time, reduce the consumption of energy greatly, and the degree of hardness decline is smaller under the same annealing condition.