The highly conserved operon iron–sulfur cluster (iscSUA) is essential for the general biogenesis and transfer of iron–sulfur proteins in bacteria. In this study, expression, purification and characterization of the proteins of the isc operon (iscSUA) of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was studied. Assembly and transfer of [Fe4S4] in vitro during the isc proteins and other iron sulfur proteins was studied in order to detect the pathway and mechanism of [Fe4S4] assembly and transfer in vivo. The [Fe4S4] cluster was successfully assembled in iron-sulfur proteins in vitro in the presence of Fe2+ and sulfide, and it was successfully transferred from IscA or IscU to iron- sulfur proteins. Our results support and extend certain models of iron-sulfur clusters assembly and transfer.