Robust Watermarking Algorithm Based on Bi-Dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition
In this paper, we introduce a robust image watermarking method based on bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition against geometric distortion. Based on the characteristics of the image theory and human visual system, the proposed method makes use of orthogonal properties of empirical mode decomposition to achieve the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition transform on the image. The image is decomposed into a series of IMFs and residue which contain the different frequency parts of the image. So the watermark is adaptively weighed to the different positions of the middle frequency IMF region. The method makes use of the multi-scale analysis characteristics of image bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition theory and the person’s sense of vision and shows excellent advantage against shearing attack. The method could show the watermark clearly when half of the image has been cut. Experimental results show this method excellent robustness for image shearing. The watermark thus generated is invisible and performs well in StirMark test and is robust to geometrical attacks. Compared with other watermarking algorithms, this algorithm is more robust, especially against geometric distortion, while having excellent frequency properties.
Helen Zhang, Gang Shen and David Jin
M. H. Deng et al., "Robust Watermarking Algorithm Based on Bi-Dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 204-210, pp. 627-631, 2011