Abstract: In order to improve the dispersion homogeneity and stabilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) in epoxy resin, the effect of different surfactants such as hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), oleic acid, Triton X-100 and BYK-9077 on the dispersion of MWNT were investigated. Suspensions of MWNTs/epoxy resin with various surfactants were prepared by ultrasonic agitation. Dispersion homogeneity of MWNT in epoxy resin was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dispersion stabilization was evaluated by stationary observation. The results show that dispersion properties were not improved by HTAB, while they were improved incoordinately by SDS, oleic acid, Triton X-100 and BYK-9077. Suspensions of MWNTs/epoxy resin with HTAB, SDS, oleic acid and Triton X-100 were all delaminated quickly, it means, dispersion stabilization were not improved by these surfactants. BYK-9077 was the only surfactant which enhanced the dispersion homogeneity and stabilization of MWNTs/epoxy resin significantly. Based on this research, various weight ratios of surfactant BYK-9077 to MWNT were studied. The experimental results show that the dispersion system could reach a balance state when the ratio of surfactant BYK-9077 to MWN was 2.
Abstract: Microfluidic chips have a great prospect in the field of biochemical analysis with advantages of fast processes, high flux and low consumption. Molding and bonding are separated by the conventional procedure of hot embossing and bonding, resulting in low automation and long production cycle. In order to reduce cycle time and achieve mass production, this paper proposed In-mold Bonding technology with precisely controlled bonding pressure by injection molding machine’s movement of core-pulling. So simulation analysis for bonding process of PMMA microfluidic chip was carried out using finite element software to study microchannel distortion at different bonding temperature and pressure. The results show that, at a certain bonding pressure, when bonding temperature was lower than glass transition temperature(Tg), microchannel distortion didn’t change significantly, when bonding temperature was higher than Tg, microchannel deformation increases with increasing temperature. Small microchannel distortion was obtained at a temperature of 108°C,which was recommended as the suitable bonding temperature.
Abstract: There are many attractive features for using CO2 foam injection in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. For understanding CO2 foam rheology in porous media, an experimental study is reported in this paper concerning CO2 film foam flow characteristics in a vertical straight tube. Foam is treated as non-Newtonian fluid and its pseudo-plastic behavior is investigated based on power law constitutive model. It is observed the CO2 film foam flow shows clear shear-thinning behavior, with flow consistency coefficient of K=0.15 and flow behavior index of n=0.48. The apparent viscosity of flowing CO2 film foam is under the shear rate of 50s-1 and under the shear rate of 1000s-1, which are 19 and 3 times higher than the single phase water. It is also found CO2 foam has lower apparent viscosity than the foam with air as the internal gas phase, which is in consistence with experimental observations for lower CO2 foam flow resistance in porous media.
Abstract: An enhanced elastic-plastic constitutive equation taking into account strain induced transformation and its effect on work hardening of TRIP steel during deformation are investigated. The transformation rate relies on the stress triaxiality. The strain hardening of the TRIP steel takes on parabola shape because of the austenite changed to the martensite during straining. The physical model is verified by comparing with the stress-strain relation of the uniaxial tension experiment. The results showed that the steel keeps a high hardening potential which retards the onset of necking and a good formability thanks to the martensitic strain-induced transformation and the subsequent austenite hardening.
Abstract: Hydrolyzed Kevlar fibers (KFs) were compouded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with wood flour (WF) by twin-screw/single-screw extruder to investigate the reinforcement effects of KFs on the mechanical properties of conventional WF/HDPE composites. Maleated HDPE (MAPE) was used as a compatibilizer. The mechanical properties significantly improved as the KFs loading increases in the presence of 4% MAPE, such as tensile strength 14.7%, tensile modulus 12.4%, flexural strength 22.2%, flexural modulus 22.4%, and impact strength 41.7% with 2 wt.% KFs compared to WF/HDPE composite with MAPE. The fiber matrix morphology of the interface region in the composites was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Abstract: 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate was grafted into alkali treated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) using free radical polymerization. 1H NMR, IR and DSC spectra of the modified polymer showed that double bonds were produced on PVDF and that 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate was successfully grafted to PVDF. The membranes prepared using the grafted PVDF showed higher flux and better mechanical property than the pure PVDF membranes.
Abstract: Polyethersulfone(PES)/Sulfonated polysulfone(SPSF) blend ultrafiltration membranes at different SPSF contents were prepared using a phase inversion technique. The morphological structures of PES/SPSF blend ultrafiltration membranes with different sulfonation degree were characterized using SEM. The results shown that the PES/SPSF blend ultrafiltration membranes had good retention to PEG1000 (99.8%) and high water permeate flux (27.2Lm-2h-1) at 0.1MPa.
Abstract: Blends based on maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) were prepared through reactive extrusion in the presence of titanium tetrabutoxide (Ti(OBu)4) as transesterification catalyst. Mechanical properties of PET/MAPE blends(70wt./30wt.) were evaluated by mechanical tests. The Effects of Ti(OBu)4 on the structure and melt crystallization behavior of the blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of Ti(OBu)4 to the blends could improve the compatibility between PET and MAPE as was evidenced by the SEM micrograph in which filaments connected to a network structure was observed. With increasing the contents of Ti(OBu)4, the impact strength of the blends increased obviously, the flexural strength and tensile strength of blends did not change significantly, while the degradation of PET was gradually significant as was evidenced by FTIR analysis. Small amount of Ti(OBu)4 could hinder the crystallization of PET and make its melt peak shifted to higher temperature.
Abstract: Polyester fibers are used in a great many textile and industrial materials, their undesirable electrical advantage bring about disadvantages. Direct polymerization of pyrrole on polyester fibers may provide useful tools for producing new conducting materials. Polyester/polypyrrole composite fiber was prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization from liquid phase pyrrole at room temperature. The result showed that deposition of pyrrole is an effective way to impart conductivity to polyester fiber. The Tg of coated polyester fiber decreased and the surface of Ppy coated polyester fiber displayed an evident granular structure. In addition, the Ppy coatings have good stability under washing and heating treatment, which demonstrate that polypyrrole has good affinity to polyester fiber.