High Intensity Laser Ablation of Titanium Target
In thin film deposition by pulsed laser ablation (PLD), the mass ablation rate depends on laser energy, on the pulse duration and on the thermodynamic properties of the ablated materials. In order to optimize the PLD technique and the films quality, the evolution of the amount of the ejected materials with laser irradiance, the SEM images of the laser impacts on the target and the ion yield in the vapour plume, were used. This allows us to predict the different mechanisms that are responsible to mass ablation according to laser irradiance which was ranging from 1.5108W/cm2 to 5.51010 W/cm2. Three diagnostics devices have been used: A quartz microbalance placed in front of the target, where the maximum of materials ejection occurs, a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to show the impact morphology evolution with the laser irradiance and a charge collector, biased at negative voltage, was used to measure the ions yield and ions kinetic energy. The results show the evolution from normal evaporation mechanism at moderate laser irradiance to phase explosion mechanism at higher laser irradiance. Laser irradiance threshold for phase explosion onset is well determined by microbalance measurement, SEM micrographic pictures and the laser breakdown in the vapour plume was determined by the charge collector.
El-Hachemi Amara and Djamila Bennaceur-Doumaz
K. Yahiaoui et al., "High Intensity Laser Ablation of Titanium Target", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 227, pp. 57-61, 2011