Ti ions were implanted into H21 steel to improve the surface structure of oxides in H21 steel. The wear characteristics of the implanted steel was measured and compared to the performance of the un-implanted steel by a line-cutting apparatus and an optical interference microscope. The Ti concentration depth profile of the implanted steel was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The structure and composition of oxides were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the improved wear resistance of the implanted steel was mainly due to the structure and composition changes of the surface oxides after Ti ion implantation.