A three-dimensional “fin-groove” composite structure copper current collector was fabricated by micro-ploughing process. 3D and common 2D carbon anodes for lithium- ion batteries were prepared. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge (C-D) test. 2D anode showed high contact resistance, high coulombic efficiency but poor cycle performance. In contrast, 3D anode showed the structure superiority in reinforcing bonding force between active materials and copper substrate, improving the conductive environment and alleviating volume changes. It was believed that 3D anode can keep high coulombic efficiency and improve the cycle performance of lithium- ion batteries.