30 Years of Modeling of Microstructure Evolution during Casting Solidification


Article Preview

This paper is a review of the marvelous development of mathematical and computer models that describe the fundamentals of microstructure evolution during the solidification of cast alloys, from the 1966 seminal paper by Oldfield, the first to attempt computational modeling of microstructure evolution during solidification, to the current prediction of mechanical properties. The latest analytical models for irregular eutectics such as cast iron, as well as numerical models with microstructure output, to include cellular automaton, will be discussed. Phase field models will not be discussed because of their inapplicability to casting solidification at the present time.



Edited by:

Ionel Chicinaş and Traian Canta




D. M. Ştefănescu, "30 Years of Modeling of Microstructure Evolution during Casting Solidification ", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 23, pp. 9-16, 2007

Online since:

October 2007




[1] C. Zener, Trans. AIME Vol. 167 (1946), p.550.

[2] W.A. Tiller, in Liquid Metals and Solidification, ASM, Metals Park, OH (1958), p.276.

[3] K.A. Jackson and J.D. Hunt, Trans. Metall. Soc. Vol. 236 (1966), p.1129.

[4] T. Sato and Y. Sayama: J. Crystal Growth Vol. 22(1974), pp.259-71.

[5] D.J. Fisher and W. A. Kurz, Acta Metallurgica Vol. 28 (1980), pp.777-94.

[6] P. Magnin and W. Kurz, Acta Metall. Vol. 35 (1987), p.1119.

[7] A.V. Catalina, S. Sen and D.M. Stefanescu, Metall. and Mat. Trans. Vol. 34A (2003), p.383.

[8] C.E. Birchenall and H. W Mead, J. of Metals (1956), p.1104.

[9] S.E. Wetterfall, H. Fredriksson and M. Hillert, J. Iron and Steel Inst. (1972), p.323.

[10] D.M. Stefanescu and C. Kanetkar, in Computer Simulation of Microstructural Evolution.

[11] J.C. Fisher, Private Communication (1950) ref. in B. Chalmers, Principles of Solidification Krieger Publ. Co., New York (1964).

[12] W. W Mullins and R.F. Sekerka, J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 35 (1964), p.444.

[13] J.S. Langer and H. Müller-Krumbhaar, Acta Metall. Vol. 26 (1978), p.1681.

[14] E. Ben-Jacob, N.D. Goldenfeld, B.G. Kotliar and J.S. Langer, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 53 (1984), p.2110.

[15] D. Kessler, J. Koplik and H. Levine, Advanced Physics Vol. 37(1988), p.255.

[16] M.E. Glicksman, M.B. Koss, L.T. Bushnell, J.C. Lacombe and E.A. Winsa, ISIJ International Vol. 35 (1995), p.604.

[17] W. Oldfield, ASM Trans. Vol. 59 (1966), p.945.

[18] D.M. Stefanescu, Ph.D. Dissertation, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania, (1973).

[19] D.M. Stefanescu, S. Trufinescu, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde. (1974) No. 9, p.610.

[20] E. Fras, PhD Dissertation, the Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, Poland (1975).

[21] H. Fredriksson and L. Svensson, in The Physical Metallurgy of Cast Iron, H. Fredriksson and M. Hillert eds., Elsevier (1985), p.273.

[22] H. Fredriksson and L. Svensson, in Solidification Processing of Eutectic Alloys, D.M. Stefanescu, G.J. Abbaschian, R.J. Bayuzick eds., TMS, Warrendale Pa. (1988), p.153.

[23] H. Fredriksson, J.T. Thorgrimsson and I.L. Svensson, in State of the Art of Computer Simulation of Casting and Solidification Processes, H. Fredriksson ed., Les Editions de Physique, Les Ulis, France (1986), p.267.

[24] D.M. Stefanescu and C.S. Kanetkar, ibid., pp.255-266.

[25] K.C. Su, I. Ohnaka, I. Yamauchhi and T. Fukusako, in The Physical Metallurgy of Cast Iron, H. Fredriksson and M. Hillert eds., Elsevier (1985), p.181.

[26] G. Lesoult, M. Castro and J. Lacaze, Acta mater. Vol. 46 (1998), p.983.

[27] H. Zhao, B.C. Liu, Int. J. of Cast Metals Research Vol. 16 (2003), p.281.

[28] A. Catalina and D M Stefanescu, Metall. and Mater. Trans. Vol. 27A (1966), p.4205.

[29] D. Venugopalan, Metall. Trans. (1990), 21A, p.913.

[30] S. Chang, D. Shangguan and D. M. Stefanescu, Metall. Trans. Vol. 22A (1991), p.915.

[31] M. Wessén and I.L. Svensson, Metall. and Mater. Trans. Vol. 27A (1996), p.2209.

[32] A. Catalina, X. Guo, D M Stefanescu, L. Chuzhoy, and M.A. Pershing, Trans. AFS Vol. 108 (2000), p.247.

[33] A. Catalina, D.M. Stefanescu, and L. Chuzhoy, in: Solidification Science and Processing, TMS, Edited by I. Ohnaka and D.M. Stefanescu (1995), p.119.

[34] S.G.R. Brown, T. Williams, and J.A. Spittle, Acta Met. et Mater. Vol. 42 (1994), p.2893.

[35] J.A. Warren and W.J. Boettinger, Acta Met. et Mater. Vol. 43 (1995), p.689.

[36] M. Ode, S.G. Kim, W.T. Kim, and T. Suzuki, in The Science of Casting and Solidification.

[37] C.A. Gandin, M. Rappaz and R. Tintillier, Metall. Trans. Vol. A26A (1993), p.467.

[38] R. Sasikumar and R. Sreenivasan, Acta Met. et Mater. Vol. 42 (1994), p.2381.

[39] U. Dilthey, V. Pavlik, and T. Reichel, Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena 3, H. Cerjak and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, eds., The Inst. of Materials, London (1997), p.85.

[40] M.F. Zhu and C.P. Hong, ISIJ International Vol. 41 (2001), p.436.

[41] J.A. Warren, I. Loginova, L. Gránázy, T. Börzsönyi, and T. Pusztai, in Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes X, D.M. Stefanescu et al. editors, TMS, Warrendale, Pa. (2003), p.45.

[42] C.A. Gandin and M. Rappaz, Acta Materialia Vol. 45 (1997), p.2187.

[43] L. Nastac, in Proc. Modeling of Casting and Solidification Processes IV, C.P. Hong, J.K. Choi, and D.H. Kim Eds., Hanrimwon, Seoul (2000), p.31.

[44] L. Beltran-Sanchez and D.M. Stefanescu, Metall. Mater. Trans. Vol. 34A, (2003), pp.367-382.

[45] M. Rappaz, Ch. Gandin, A. Jacot, and Ch. Charbon, in Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, Eds. M. Cross and J. Campbell, TMS (1995), p.501.

[46] L. Belteran-Sanchez, D.M. Stefanescu, Metall Mater Trans A Vol. 35, (2004), p.2471.

[47] M.F. Zhu and D.M. Stefanescu, Acta Materialia Vol. 55, (2007), p.1741.

[48] R. Ruxanda, L. Beltran-Sanchez, J. Massone, and D.M. Stefanescu, in: Proceedings of Cast Iron Division, AFS 105th Casting Congress, American Foundry Soc., Des Plaines IL, (2001), p.37.

[49] B. Leube and L. Arnberg, Int. J. Cast Metals Res. Vol. 11 (1999), p.507.

[50] I.L. Svensson, M. Wessen and A. Gonzalez, in Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, T.S. Piwonka, V. Voller and L. Katgerman eds., TMS (1993), p.29.

[51] A. Catalina X. Guo, D M Stefanescu, L. Chuzhoy and M.A. Pershing, in Modeling of Casting, Welding and Adv. Solidif. Proc. VIII, B.G. Thomas and C. Beckermann eds., TMS (1998), p.455.

[52] R. Weber, J.C. Sturm and P.R. Sahm, in Physical Metallurgy of Cast Iron V, G. Lesoult and J. Lacaze eds., Scitec Publications, Switzerland (1997) 105-128.