Steel-concrete composite bridge towers have the advantages of steel and concrete, they have a good prospect in bridge engineering. However, the applications and related researches of composite bridge towers in China are rare. Therefore, in this article, two types of steel-high performance concrete composite bridge tower and pier models, which had none and one row of longitudinal stud connectors, were designed. The axial compression tests were practiced on the two specimens, in order to study the influence of connectors on the mechanical properties of the composite bridge towers and piers. From the tests, the ultimate bearing capacity and failure mode were obtained, and the regularities of strains and deformations were also analyzed. The results show that setting up stud connectors on the composite towers and piers can improve the ductility and the ultimate bearing capacity obviously.