Welding residual stress has important influence on the performance of engineering components. In this paper, the residual stress and FWHM were measured by X-ray diffraction method to investigate characteristics for P92 steel welds. The aim of the study is to estimate the residual stress and FWHM distribution characteristics. A compressive residual stress distributed as a function of depth has a different pattern in welds and base metal. A large tensile residual stress occurs welds and near the HAZ, but approaches gradually zero as away from the welding center. Residual stress and FWHM undergo rapid relaxation after PWHT. Also, FWHM is a scalar quantity without any directional difference and is proportional to hardness on the whole.