Characterization of Bismuth Titanate Powders
Bismuth titanate was prepared from the sol-gel method. Bismuth nitrate and titanium isopropoxide were used as the starting precursors with the mole ratio of Bi:Ti as 4:3. Solutions were mixed in acetic acid medium and heat at 80 oC for 2h. Sols were obtained after adjusting the final of pH of solution to 2. Gels were formed after drying at 100 oC for 24h. The milled powders were calcined at 500-800 oC for 2h. The phase formation was investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Single phase with orthorhombic structure of bismuth titanate was obtained after calcination at 700 oC for 2h. The morphology and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The average particle size was 0.50- 1.5 μm with the irregular shape. The elemental composition of bismuth, titanium and oxygen showed the characteristic X-ray energy values.
Young Won Chang, Nack J. Kim and Chong Soo Lee
P. Pookmanee and S. Phanichphant, "Characterization of Bismuth Titanate Powders", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 26-28, pp. 247-250, 2007