To improve structure durability of Cao’e River Floodgate in China, durability and lifetime prediction of high-volume ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) concrete were investigated. Chloride ion permeability was analyzed with nature soaking method and RCM method. High-volume GGBS concrete had better capability to resist chloride ion penetration with lower diffusion coefficient of chloride ion than ordinary Portland concrete (OPC) had. Experiment of steel-bar corrosion in dry-wet environments proved that high-volume GGBS concrete had better performance to protect steel-bar than OPC had. In the sulfate solution, high-volume GGBS mortar bars only produced small expansion which was 40% of that of Portland cement mortar bars. The performance of frost resistance of high-volume GGBS concrete was favorable. GGBS debased the capability of carbonation resistance. Lifetime prediction illuminated high-volume GGBS concrete was beneficial to extended project lifespan. The results show that high-volume GGBS concrete can solve the facing durability problem of Cao’e River Floodgate.