Phase Formation during Reduction of Iron Sand with Soda Ash Flux Addition


Article Preview

Iron sand deposit in Indonesia generally consisted of titanomagnetite with ilmenite lamelaa occurred in magnetite particle structure, therefore direct physical separation through magnetic method at particle size of 400 mesh only capable increasing total iron content up to 60%. In order to increase the grade of iron, decreasing TiO2 content in iron sand was applied by chemical method of alkaline fusion followed by grinding to 100 mesh and magnetic separation. Pre-oxidation was conducted prior to reduction and alkaline flux was added to coal based reduction system of in a rotary kiln. The alkali addition into the reduction system resulted to the formation of metallic iron and non metallic phases, in which sodium titanate compounds as nonmagnetic product can be separated from calcine using separator magnetic. XRD analyses of the concentrate and tailing as magnetic separation products showed concentrate was dominated by metallic phase compared to oxide phase and it doesn’t consisted iron-titan oxide and iron oxide. On the other hand, tailing was consisted iron-titan oxide and iron oxide.



Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 264-265)

Edited by:

M.S.J. Hashmi, S. Mridha and S. Naher




Pramusanto et al., "Phase Formation during Reduction of Iron Sand with Soda Ash Flux Addition", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 264-265, pp. 801-806, 2011

Online since:

June 2011




[1] Cirpar, Cigdem, Heat Treatment of Iron Ore Agglomerate with Microwave Energy, Thesis, Graduated School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, (2005).

[2] Holloway, P. C, Salt Roasting of Suncor Oil sands Fly Ash, Metallurgical and Metal Transaction B, Volume 35, No. 6 (2004) pp.1051-1058.


[3] Park, Eungyeul and Oleg Ostrovski, Effect of Preoxidation of Titania-ferrous Ore on the ore Structure and Reduction Behaviour, ISIJ Int., Vol. 44 (2004) No. 1 pp.74-81.


[4] Park, Eungyeul and Oleg Ostrovski, Reduction of Titania-Ferrous Ore by Carbon Monoxide, ISIJ Int., Vol. 43 (2003) No. 9 pp.1316-1325.


[5] Tathavadkar, V., A. Jha, T. Fulop. T.I. Torok and A Redey, Comparison of the Mineralogical Characteristic and Alkali Roasting Behaviour of Red Mud Different Origins, REWAS (2004).