Abstract: The mechanical properties of Co3(Al,W) with the L12 structure have been investigated both in single and polycrystalline forms. The values of all the three independent single-crystal elastic constants and polycrystalline elastic constants of Co3(Al,W) experimentally determined by resonance ultrasound spectroscopy at liquid helium temperature are 15~25% larger than those of Ni3(Al,Ta) but are considerably smaller than those previously calculated. When judged from the values of Poisson’s ratio, Cauchy pressure and ratio of shear modulus to bulk modulus (Gh/Bh), the ductility of Co3(Al,W) is expected to be sufficiently high. In the yield stress-temperature curve, a rapid decrease and an anomalous increase in yield stress is observed in the low and intermediate (1000-1100 K) temperature ranges, respectively. The former is concluded to be due to the solid-solution hardening effect while the latter is attributed to thermally activated cross-slip of APB-coupled a/2<110> superpartial dislocations from octahedral to cube slip planes.
Abstract: The creep behaviour of MC2 single crystal superalloy has been studied at 1150°C/80 MPa, with an applied load along  axis. The resulting dislocation microstructures were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The occurrence of a type dislocations (with a zero Schmid factor) within the ordered γ' precipitates is often observed. It is shown that those dislocations moved by a climb process, based on a mechanism involving two dislocation systems and vacancy exchanges, as proposed in the literature. We calculate the vacancy fluxes associated with such a mechanism and show that the vacancy transportation can be easily insured by a simple diffusion process. This calculation shows that the diffusion and climbing steps do not seem to be the creep rate controlling mechanisms for those situations in MC2 alloy.
Abstract: The mechanical behavior of the polycrystalline NR3 Ni-based superalloy has been investigated at the microscopic scale. The elementary deformation mechanisms have been analyzed using transmission electron microscope observations as well as in situ straining experiments. Under low stress and relatively low strain rate conditions, a large variety of shearing micromechanisms has been observed depending on the local microstructure and the local effective stress. The influence of the smallest precipitates on the creep behavior has been enlightened: they induce narrow channels which act as obstacle for the movement of the dislocations. In the case of the narrowest channel, the deformation can operate by the propagation of Shockley dislocations or else, by the only propagation of the leading partial resulting from the partial dislocation decorrelation. The occurrence of the observed micromechanisms has been quantitatively analyzed using a nodal dislocation dynamics simulation.
Abstract: The evolution of the raft structure in the Ni-based single-crystal superalloy TMS-138 crept at 1100 °C and 137 MPa has been investigated quantitatively by the Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This method of analysis quantifies the extent of tilting of the γ/γ′ interface during creep deformation. The analysis is carried out on two different crystallographic planes, (100) and (110), on which SEM observations of deformation microstructures are made, to see if there is any difference in the results of analysis depending on observation planes. The tilt angle of the γ/γ′ interface, which is deduced by the Fourier analysis, increases with the accumulation of creep strain. The rate of the increase in the tilt angle is significantly large in the tertiary creep stage. The result of analysis does not depend significantly on crystallographic planes on which SEM observations of microstructures are made.
Abstract: The single crystal superalloys CMSX-4 and TMS75 were tested for very long times at high temperatures in laboratory creep tests and in service. The microstructure was investigated in TEM and SEM. It was found, that the ’-phase is cut at stresses much below the threshold given in literature. Cutting takes place by <110> screw dislocations. These mobile dislocations can be locked locally by a Giamei-lock. Thus a stacking fault dipole forms between the locked segment and the preceding ones. The dipole consists of two supershockley dislocations with 30° character, which are also stabilized by Giamei locks. The dipole formation is analyzed and discussed in detail.
Abstract: The dissolution kinetics of an ultra-fine γ’ precipitation occurring in the γ matrix between the standard secondary precipitates of MC2 Ni-based single crystal superalloy was investigated. Creep-fatigue experiments at 1050°C including an overheating at 1200°C were performed on <111> oriented specimens to study the effects of fine γ’ particles on the plastic deformation. During these experiments, a decrease of the plastic deformation rate was observed just after the temperature peak. This hardening effect disappears once the fine γ’ precipitates had been dissolved. A mean time for this hyperfine precipitation dissolution could then be highlighted. Based on both simple binary diffusion and complex diffusion analysis, the mean time for the dissolution of the fine γ’ precipitates is analyzed and compared to the experimental ones. It is shown that considering only a simple binary diffusion is not sufficient and it should be considered a more complex diffusive analysis involving additional interplays.
Abstract: One of the major ingredients of modelling the mechanical behaviour of superalloys is the knowledge of dislocation densities and strain distribution. Both can be measured using post mortem BF TEM and CBED, but such methods do not allow following their variations during a test. The aim of the present work is to investigate the usefulness of in situ X-Ray Three Crystal Diffractometry (TCD) to measure the density and distribution of dislocations within a rafted superalloy, i.e. during stage II of high temperature creep. As the instrument contribution is very low, the two-peaked experimental profiles are representative of the lattice parameter distribution within the material. The profiles were measured within bulk specimens at the BW5 high energy beamline Hasylab (DESY), during high temperature (1050°C to 1180°C) tests under loads between 0 MPa and 300 MPa. The peak shapes were observed to change with varying experimental conditions. The peak width follows different patterns under low and high stress, i.e. with low and high strain rates. The distribution of elastic strains was calculated by assuming two main contributions: dislocation segments trapped at the γ/γ’ interfaces in a more or less regular network, and dislocations moving within the γ’ rafts. A comparison between experimental and simulated peaks shows that several features of their behaviour can be explained: the absolute magnitude of the peak width, the observed decrease of the peak width under low loads with increasing interfacial dislocation densities. The larger increase in the width of the γ’ peak under high load (and strain rate) may be attributed to a dislocation density within the 1013 m-2 range within the rafts. The present results are presently being cross-checked by post mortem TEM observations.
Abstract: Single crystal Ni-base superalloys based on the / system are widely used in gas turbine applications. To understand the formation of precipitates, including size distribution and growth, we performed in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements at elevated temperatures and - together with TEM as well as , SEM imaging - studied changes in the precipitates in short and long time scale. In the early stages, a bimodal precipitate size distribution of precipitate is observed, which (depending on the annealing temperature) changes to a cuboidal or nearly spherical morphology with almostmore or less uniform ( unimodal?) size distribution. [Note: The term "more or less" is several times repeated in the text. I cannot imagine what it in fact means. Could you change it or explain in a more clear way?]
Abstract: The combination of high temperature (1050°C -1150°C) testing and in situ high energy X-Ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron Three Crystal Diffractometry may give various insights into the mechanical behaviour of superalloys: measurement of the lattice mismatch, order within the ' phase, elastic constants, and dynamic response to changes in the experimental conditions. Several examples are given on the rafted AM1 superalloy, resulting from experiments at the ID15A (ESRF) and BW5 (DESY) high energy beamlines.