Formation of a Protective Alumina Scale on Ni-Base Superalloys by Using the Halogen Effect
A new method is proposed to achieve a dense protective alumina scale for Ni-base superalloys with an Al-content lower than 10 wt.% at temperatures above 1000°C. The method is based on the halogen effect. Thermodynamical calculations show the existence of a region for a positive fluorine effect at temperatures between 900-1200°C for the alloys IN738 and IN939. By using fluorine ion implantation in combination with Monte Carlo simulation of the fluorine profiles these results were transformed into a region of F-concentrations at the metal surface. A dense protective alumina scale was formed for IN738 after oxidation at 1050°C. Due to the very low Al-content no alumina scale was found for IN939.
H. E. Zschau et al., "Formation of a Protective Alumina Scale on Ni-Base Superalloys by Using the Halogen Effect", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 278, pp. 485-490, 2011