High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/silica composites with different silicon dioxide fraction were prepared by the melting blend method. The effects of silicon dioxide content on the thermal properties and mechanical properties were mainly investigated. The results show that the thermal degradation of the composites shifts towards higher temperatures as the concentration of silicon dioxide is increased. With increasing silica dioxide content, the tension yield strength of HDPE/silicon composites increased, but its breaking elongation decreased. When silicon dioxide content is 5 %, the tension yield strength and its breaking elongation are 29.33 MPa and 102.82 %, respectively.