Microstructural Modification of Metallic Materials by Electromagnetic Processing and the Theoretical Interpretation
The recrystallization behaviors of cold rolled aluminum alloys in electric field up to 400kV/mm and the phase transformation processes of proeutectoid steels under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla have been experimentally examined. It has been found that both the electric field and the magnetic field have influence on the evolution of texture and microstructure characteristics. During the recrystallization annealing under the electric field of the cold-rolled 3104 aluminum alloy sheets, the electric field postpones the recovery and recrystallization progress. First principle calculation was performed to study the electric structures of aluminum atoms and vacancies. It shows that vacancies that are helpful for recovery are electrically negative. As the sample worked as anode during electric field annealing, it was covered with positive surface charges that attract the electronegative vacancies in the vicinity of the free surface and annihilate them. In this way, the recovery and then the recrystallization are postponed. The magnetic field applied changes the precipitation sequence of transitional carbides during low temperature tempering that makes the relatively high-temperature monoclinic χ-Fe5C2 carbide precipitated without following the usual precipitation sequence, i.e. by skipping the precipitation of the usual orthorhombic η-Fe2C carbide. To reveal the working mechanism of this phenomenon, first principle calculations were performed to study the formation energies of the two iron-carbide systems and their electronic and magnetic structures and properties. Calculation results show that η-Fe2C has lower formation energy, which is proved by the formation sequence observed during the usual low temperature tempering process. However, χ-Fe5C2 has the higher magnetic moment, which enhances the stability under the magnetic field through magnetization. Therefore, under the magnetic field its precipitation tendency is increased.
Deliang Zhang, Kim Pickering, Brian Gabbitas, Peng Cao, Alan Langdon, Rob Torrens and Johan Verbeek
L. Zuo et al., "Microstructural Modification of Metallic Materials by Electromagnetic Processing and the Theoretical Interpretation ", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 29-30, pp. 123-126, 2007