Electrical Properties of Mn-Co-Ni Oxides Prepared at Low Temperatures
Changes in crystal phase and electrical properties of oxides composed of Mn, Co, and Ni with the molar ratios of 5:2:1 and 3:3:1 were investigated. Starting oxides were fired from 250°C to 800°C, then maintained at prescribed temperatures for 3 h in air. In the 5:2:1 specimen, a monophase consisting of a cubic spinel oxide that is important to electrical conductivity was obtained at firing temperature of 800°C. In the 3:3:1 specimen, the monophase was obtained at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 800°C. Electrical resistance decreased exponentially with increasing temperature for all specimens fired at temperatures ranging from 250°C to 800°C, indicating that the oxides have intrinsic thermistor characteristics with negative temperature coefficient (NTC). The temperature dependence of the thermistor constant (B value) necessary for practical application was considered to be related to the existence ratio of cubic spinel-type and ilmenite-type structures and the lattice constant of the cubic spinel-type structure. The electrical conduction was stabilized by annealing at prescribed temperatures for more than 720 minutes.
Deliang Zhang, Kim Pickering, Brian Gabbitas, Peng Cao, Alan Langdon, Rob Torrens and Johan Verbeek
T. Yokoyama et al., "Electrical Properties of Mn-Co-Ni Oxides Prepared at Low Temperatures", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 29-30, pp. 359-362, 2007