Sonoelectroplating of Sn - Bi Solder Film from EDTA Bath
This study concerns the development of Pb free solder plating due to environmental concerns. The composition of the bath was 0.1 mol/dm3 SnY and 0.1 mol/dm3 BiY- in 2 mol/dm3 CH3COOH - 2 mol/dm3 CH3COONa buffer solution (pH 4.0). The bath used 100 cm3 of solution. Plating was carried out at a current density of 50 mA/cm2 using ultrasonic agitation (sonication) at 28 kHz (100 W). Various percentages of a Sn - Bi alloy could be plated. A 41wt.%Sn - 59 wt.%Bi alloy with a melting point of 415 K was obtained from a [BiY-]/[BiY-+SnY] = 0.3 bath. The surface morphologies of the plated films showed a striking difference in accordance with a change of composition.
Deliang Zhang, Kim Pickering, Brian Gabbitas, Peng Cao, Alan Langdon, Rob Torrens and Johan Verbeek
A. Chiba et al., "Sonoelectroplating of Sn - Bi Solder Film from EDTA Bath", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 29-30, pp. 99-102, 2007