In this thesis, the composite of aluminum hydroxide on the surface of natural one-dimensional nano minerals and the nanocrystallization of inorganic flame retarder (aluminium hydroxide) are achieved by hydrothermal method. The obtained nano-composite flame retarder is applied in the preparation of straw based panel to improve its flame retardant performance. After ultrasonic dispersion and complex purification with the addition of EDTA, the crude attapulgite clay minerals is put in acid solution of PH 2 or 3, where the surface of the complex is modified with the addition of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB).Then add into it aluminum hydroxide of different amounts, to start the hydrothermal composite reaction and get aluminum hydroxide/ nano-attapulgite composite flame retarder. After the characterization by SEM the best hydrothermal reaction conditions for preparing aluminum hydroxide/attapulgite are obtained. The prepared nano composite flame retarder, the PF adhesive and straw shavings are mixed in different proportions and made into straw based panel by hot pressing. Then the study on the flame retardant performance and the mechanical properties of the straw based panel is carried out.