Frontiers in Materials Science and Technology

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Authors: Yin Xiao, Hui Peng, Xueli Mao, Andrew K. Whittaker, Ross Crawford
Abstract: Cell-based therapy is one of the major potential therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular, neuronal and degenerative diseases in recent years. The aims of this study is to develop a novel biomimic polymeric materials which will facilitate the delivery cells, control cell bioactivities and enhance the focal integration of graft cells with host tissues. We synthesized a novel tri-block copolymer, methoxy-terminated poly (ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-polyL-lactide (PLLA)-polylysine (PLL) via sequential polymerization of PLLA onto MPEG, followed by ring opening polymerization of PLL onto the functionalized chain end. The triblock copolymer (5%) was then mixed with high molecular weight PLLA (95%) to form cell-delivery membranes. The spectra of copolymers were determined by NMR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were used for testing biocompatibility and initial cellular reaction. It was noted that no cytotoxicity was detectable in our synthesized copolymers. Compared with pure PLLA and diblock copolymers, the triblock copolymers showed significantly better cell adhesion and proliferation. Interestingly we identified that cellular activity (attachment, proliferation and differentiation) could be regulated by the molecular weight and composition of the triblock copolymers. In conclusion controllable synthetic copolymers can be designed and synthesized to modulate cellular function in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration.
Authors: Cameron P. Brown, Ross Crawford, Adekunle Oloyede
Abstract: It has been recently established that mechanical indentation does not sufficiently discriminate between normal and degraded articular cartilage. Consequently, we have carried out preliminary research to develop and evaluate a number of indices and parameters that can characterise and categorise the tissue into viable and degraded types relative to functional integrity. In this paper, we report the outcome of correlation studies between the instantaneous structural rebound following unloading from a known level of indentation and reflected ultrasound signals, analysed in the frequency domain. We subjected 137 samples from 10 normal and 10 osteoarthritic joints to ultrasound waves and mechanical indentation-rebound tests, and determined the degree of correlation between the instantaneous rebound and the principal components of the ultrasound spectra and further investigated this using canonical discriminate analysis that was fitted with a general linear model. Our results demonstrate a strong correlation between rebound and ultrasound results, leading to the conclusion that it is possible to determine the mechanical and structural viability of articular cartilage using non-contact methods.
Authors: Xin Wang, Yi Xia Zhang, Yu Hong Cui
Abstract: On the basis of the characters of dentinal microstructures, a new Three-Parameter-Solid viscoelastic mechanics model which can predict strain creep, stress relaxation and instant elasticity with anisotropic constitutive relation for the human dentin is developed in this paper. The porous protein-mineral model is adopted to obtain the independent dentinal viscoelastic moduli based on its microstructural characters. The influencing mechanisms and the viscoelastic properties of the microstructural dentin are also evaluated by the Three-Parameter-Solid viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic predictive results obtained from the Three-Parameter-Solid viscoelastic model agree well with those from the experimental investigation in both wet and dry situations.
Authors: Shital Patel, Cynthia Wong, Yos S. Morsi, Xiu Mei Mo, Chen Rui
Abstract: Arterial bypass and heart valve replacements are two of the most common surgical treatments in cardiovascular surgery today. Currently, artificial materials are used as substitute for these cardiac tissues. However, these foreign materials do not have the ability to grow, repair or remodel and are thrombogenic, leading to stenosis. With the aid of tissue engineering, it is possible to develop functional identical copies of healthy heart valves and arteries, which are biocompatible. Although much effort has been made into this area, there are still inconsistencies with respect to endothelialisation and cell retention on synthetic biological grafts. These variations may be attributed to differences in factors such as cell seeding density, incubation periods and effects of shear stress. In this study, we have compared the endothelialisation and cell retention between gelain chitosan-coated electrospun polyurethane (PU), poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PGA/PLA) and collagen-coated pericardium. Endothelial cells adhered to all of the materials as early as 1–day post seeding. After 7-day of seeding, the coverage on PU was almost 45% and that on PGA/PLA was about 25% and the least was on collagen-coated pericardium of approximately 15%. It was observed that the PU showed superior cell coverage and cell retention in comparison to the PGA/PLA and collagen-coated pericardium.
Authors: S. Kashef, S.A. Asgari, Peter D. Hodgson, Wen Yi Yan
Abstract: Using Titanium (Ti) foam as an implant material is a new approach for biomedical applications and it is important to understand the mechanical behaviors of this new foam material. In the present study, the bending of the Ti foam has been simulated and compared against recently published data [1]. FE Analysis has been performed by Abaqus software. Stiffness and Yield strength of foams between 50% (cortical bone) to 80% (cancellous bone) porosity range were considered. This study showed that crushable foam material model in Abaqus, which has developed primarily for Aluminum (Al) foam alloys, is also valid for Ti Foam before any crack or damage occurs in the sample.
Authors: Yuan Tong Gu, Prasad K.D.V. Yarlagadda
Abstract: This paper presents a concurrent multiscale study for the deformation mechanism of monocrystalline copper under dynamic uniaxial tension. The multiscale simulation is based on the coupled meshless and molecular dynamic (MD) method. Using it, the size of computational model can be extended to a large dimension (in micrometer) with an atomistic resolution. The pure MD simulation is difficult to reach this microscopic dimension because the number of atoms will be too large. In this study, it has been revealed that the deformation behavior and mechanism of the copper is sensitive to its size, geometry, and loading strain rate. In addition, the Young’s modulus is found to be independent of the cross-sectional size and the strain rate range considered in this study. On the other hand, the yield stress decreases with specimen length and increases with the loading strain rate.
Authors: Shi Wei Zhou, Qing Li
Abstract: This study systemically presents an inverse homogenization method in the design of functional gradient materials, which gained substantial attention recently due to their layer-by-layer defined physical properties. Each layer of these materials is unilaterally constructed by periodically extended microstructural elements (namely base cells), whose effective properties can be decided by the homogenization theory in accordance with the material distribution within the base cell. The design objective is to minimize the summation of the least squares of the difference between corresponded entries in target and effective elasticity tensors. The method of moving asymptote drives the minimization of this positive objective function, which forces the effective values approach to the targets as closely as possible. The sensitivity of the effective elasticity tensors with respect to the design variables is derived from the adjoint variable method and it guides the minimization algorithm efficiently. To guarantee the connectivity between adjacent layers, non-design domains occupied by solid materials acting as connective bars are fixed in the design of base cells. Furthermore, nonlinear diffusion technique is introduced to avoid checkerboard patterns and blur boundaries in the microstructures. A series of two-dimensional examples targeted for the elasticity tensors with same extreme Poisson ratios but different densities in each layer are illustrated to highlight the computational material design procedure.
Authors: Hei Jie Li, Jing Tao Han, Zheng Yi Jiang, Hua Chun Pi, Dong Bin Wei, A. Kiet Tieu
Abstract: Taylor-type and finite element polycrstal models have been embedded into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS to carry out the crystal plasticity finite element modelling of BCC deformation texture based on rate dependent crystal constitutive equations. Initial orientations measured by EBSD were directly used in crystal plasticity finite element model to simulate the development of rolling texture of IF steel under various reductions. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values. The predicted and measured textures tend to sharper with an increase of reduction, and the texture obtained from the Taylor-type model is much stronger than that by finite element model. The rolling textures calculated with 48 {110}<110>, {112}<111> and {123}<111> slip systems are close to the EBSD results.
Authors: Bohayra Mortazavi, Akbar Afaghi Khatibi
Abstract: Molecular Dynamics (MD) are now having orthodox means for simulation of matter in nano-scale. It can be regarded as an accurate alternative for experimental work in nano-science. In this paper, Molecular Dynamics simulation of uniaxial tension of some face centered cubic (FCC) metals (namely Au, Ag, Cu and Ni) at nano-level have been carried out. Sutton-Chen potential functions and velocity Verlet formulation of Noise-Hoover dynamic as well as periodic boundary conditions were applied. MD simulations at different loading rates and temperatures were conducted, and it was concluded that by increasing the temperature, maximum engineering stress decreases while engineering strain at failure is increasing. On the other hand, by increasing the loading rate both maximum engineering stress and strain at failure are increasing.
Authors: Akbar Afaghi Khatibi, Bohayra Mortazavi
Abstract: Developing new techniques for the prediction of materials behaviors in nano-scales has been an attractive and challenging area for many researches. Molecular Dynamics (MD) is the popular method that is usually used to simulate the behavior of nano-scale material. Considering high computational costs of MD, however, has made this technique inapplicable as well as inflexible in various situations. To overcome these difficulties, alternative procedures are thought. Considering its capabilities, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) seems to be the most appropriate substitute for MD simulations in most cases. But since the material properties in nano, micro, and macro scales are different, therefore to use FEA methods in nano-scale modeling one must use material properties appropriate to that scale. To this end, a previously developed Hybrid Molecular Dynamics-Finite Element (HMDFE) approach was used to investigate the nanoindentation behavior of single crystal silicon with Berkovich indenter. In this study, a FEA model was developed based on the material properties extracted from molecular dynamics simulation of uniaxial tension test on single crystal Silicon. Eventually, by comparison of FEA results with experimental data, the validity of this new technique for the prediction of nanoindentation behavior of Silicon was concluded.

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