Displacement is traditionally deemed to be equivalent to deformation. However, displacement is not exactly deformation, for example, the tip of a workpiece illustrates big displacement, but, it caused by the deformation of main body. In this paper, theory of active and passive deformation is proposed for the evaluation of the deformation of workpiece during heat treatment process and the corresponding algorithm was established. The deformation consists of active and passive deformation; the former is the actual deformation, while the latter is caused by the deformation of other areas. This algorithm was applied to the deformation analysis of a hydraulic turbine blade which is a large thin-walled workpiece. And the real deformation area of the blade is found.