Advances in Fracture and Materials Behavior

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Authors: Qing Hua Wang, Hui Min Xie, Hai Chang Jiang, Yan Jie Li, Fu Long Dai, Peng Wan Chen, Qing Ming Zhang, Feng Lei Huang
Abstract: Martensitic phase transformation can greatly affect the mechanical behaviors and the stress-strain response of shape memory alloys (SMAs). In this study, the effect of martensitic phase transformation on the deformation of a single-crystal TiNi SMA specimen with a triangle crack was investigated experimentally by means of moiré interferometry method. A typical displacement field and the corresponding strain field in areas both around and far from the tip of the crack were measured in a certain time during the loading process in which the tensile load is coupled with the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation. Some characteristics of the deformation and the martensitic phase transformation of the specimen are revealed. These results may provide a reliable support for revealing the fracture mechanism of single crystal TiNi SMAs, and may enable further development in putting forward the failure criterion of SMAs.
Authors: Mohammad M. Haque, Ahmad Faris Ismail
Abstract: Green sand casting and chill mould casting methods are representing the slow and fast cooling rates of the brass casting, respectively. The compositions of the raw material for this study were about Cu70 and Zn30, which falls under alpha (α) brass. Slow cooling rate casting shows coarse dendritric structures with large spacing between the dendrites. On the other hand, faster cooling rate casting shows finer grains with shorter dendrite spacing. The developed structure during solidification influences the properties of the cast samples. As grain size decreases, the strength of the cast brass increases; micro-porosity in the casting decreases and the tendency for the casting to fracture also decreases. However, the macro-examinations of fracture surfaces of these castings show the differences in the cast samples. Fracture surfaces of the sand cast specimen show larger dimples taking longer time to break indicating higher elongation. However, chill cast specimen shows smaller dimples and cleavage type fracture surface having higher strength and lower elongation.
Authors: Xi Shu Wang, Jing Hong Fan, Bi Sheng Wu, Ying Li
Abstract: To study the fatigue microcrack initiation and propagation behaviors of cast magnesium alloys, the small fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out using the in-situ observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM). All initiations and propagations of fatigue small cracks focused on effects of the interaction of artificial two small holes, which there are the different distances and alignments of two small holes. The results indicate that the fatigue small cracks of cast magnesium alloys occurred mainly at the defects or root of notch but the early stage crack propagations were influenced on the distance and alignment between two small holes. For cast AM50 and AM60B alloys, the fatigue small cracking prior to occurred at the weak dendrite boundary and had some concomitances such as the plastic deformation on surface of α-Mg phase. For AZ91 alloy, the fatigue cracking characterization depended mainly on the brittle properties of β-Mg17Al12 phase, which the multi cracks occurred at the boundaries of β-Mg17Al12 phase. The effect of notch on the fatigue cracking behavior becomes weaker when the radius of notch is over 3-4 times than that of average α-Mg grain size. The fatigue crack propagation behaviors varied with the different arrangements of two small holes. The effects of distance and alignment of two small holes on the fatigue crack propagation behaviors are also obvious.
Authors: Yu Ting He, Feng Li, Rong Hong Cui, Chao Hua Fan, Hong Peng Li
Abstract: When studying the growth of triaxial-stress-state crack, the plastic work rate consumed in the process zone at crack tip should be described clearly. Fracture for a cracked specimen is related to rupture of a simple uniaxial tensile specimen by nature. By equaling the crack tip stress-strain field to uniaxial stress-strain field, it is obtained that the plastic work rate consumed in the process zone at crack tip can be expressed by the plastic energy density WF multiplied by the equivalent size of the process zone hF. The plastic energy density WF can be expressed by virtue of uniaxial true stress-strain curve. And analytical form of hF for triaxial stress state is presented by recourse to three-dimensional analyses on material behaviors. The expression of plastic work rate consumed in the process zone is verified by the predicting fracture toughness.
Authors: Masanori Kikuchi, Shougo Sannoumaru
Abstract: Dimple fracture tests are conducted under mode I and mixed mode lading conditions. Dimple fracture zone and shear-lip fracture zone are observed by scanning electron microscope precisely. It is found that crack growth direction is affected largely by the change of loading condition. It is also found that the differences of fracture pattern between mid-plane and at free surface are very large. Void diameter and crack growth direction are measured. Numerical simulation is conducted to simulate fracture tests in three-dimensional field. Gurson’s constitutive equation is used and large deformation analyses are conducted. It is assumed that void nucleation is controlled by both plastic strain and stress. Numerical results are compared with those of experiments. It is found that results of numerical simulation agree well with those of experiment qualitatively.
Authors: Jin San Ju, Xiao Chuan You, Xiu Gen Jiang, Jin Zhao Zhuang
Abstract: This paper primarily describes the development and application of substructure computational analysis techniques to determine stress intensity factors for the damaged panels subjected to fatigue internal pressure. A program based on substructure analysis technique has been developed for the fracture analysis of curved aircraft panels containing cracks. This program may create whole model which consists of substructure superelements and obtain fracture parameter of the crack by expanding results in superelement automatically. For instance, a typical test curved panel model consists of 7 frames and 8 stringers is calculated. This numerical approach has been validated through comparison between the calculation SIF results and available experimental data of a typical test panel with a longitudinal crack. The technique that has been established here is also applied to the other analysis of a test series of cracked panel with 7 frames and 10 stringers. SIFs of four cracks in it with different crack lengths are obtained efficiently.
Authors: Zhao Xi Wang, Hui Ji Shi, Xiao Liang Zhang
Abstract: Detailed experiments of fracture toughness in which SENB specimens of five different thicknesses were included were carried out to investigate the size effect in the ductile to brittle transition temperature region. It is found that the fracture toughness of the upper shelf increases with the thickness of the specimens with the similar geometry. While the fracture toughness of the lower shelf decreases with the thickness in the range of 4mm to 12mm and then drops up from 12mm to 16mm with the appearance of shear lips which present the shearing fracture under the plane stress state. The tearing modulus dJ/da which determines the resistance to stable crack growth increases with the increment of thickness and the reduction of the temperature. The results of the stress triaxiality increasing with the reduction of the thickness explain well the experimental results.
Authors: Zhi Jia Wang, Xiao Lei Wu, You Shi Hong
Abstract: In this paper, torsion fracture behavior of drawn pearlitic steel wires with different heat treatments was investigated. Samples with different heat treatment conditions were subjected to torsion and tensile tests. The shear strain along the torsion sample after fracture was measured. Fracture surface of wires was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. In addition, the method of Differential Scanning Calorimetry was used to characterize the thermodynamic process in the heat treatment. A numerical simulation via finite element method on temperature field evolution for the wire during heat treatment process was performed. The results show that both strain aging and recovery process occur in the material within the temperature range between room temperature and 435 °C. It was shown that the ductility measured by the number of twists drops at short heating times and recovers after further heating in the lead bath of 435 °C. On the other hand, the strength of the wire increases at short heating times and decreases after further heating. The microstructure inhomogeneity due to short period of heat treatment, coupled with the gradient characteristics of shear deformation during torsion, results in localized shear deformation of the wire. In this situation, shear cracks nucleate between lamella and the wire breaks with low number of twists.

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