In this paper, torsion fracture behavior of drawn pearlitic steel wires with different heat treatments was investigated. Samples with different heat treatment conditions were subjected to torsion and tensile tests. The shear strain along the torsion sample after fracture was measured. Fracture surface of wires was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. In addition, the method of Differential Scanning Calorimetry was used to characterize the thermodynamic process in the heat treatment. A numerical simulation via finite element method on temperature field evolution for the wire during heat treatment process was performed. The results show that both strain aging and recovery process occur in the material within the temperature range between room temperature and 435 °C. It was shown that the ductility measured by the number of twists drops at short heating times and recovers after further heating in the lead bath of 435 °C. On the other hand, the strength of the wire increases at short heating times and decreases after further heating. The microstructure inhomogeneity due to short period of heat treatment, coupled with the gradient characteristics of shear deformation during torsion, results in localized shear deformation of the wire. In this situation, shear cracks nucleate between lamella and the wire breaks with low number of twists.