With the continuing phenomenon of eutrophication, the pollution of nitrogen has caused wide concern. Lack of organic carbon sources is always considered to be a key problem for nitrogen removal efficiency and cost when conventional biological nitrogen removal process was used to the treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater, but the anaerobic ammonium oxidation（ANAMMOX）can solve this problem .Anammox has so many advantages that it has good prospects in the biological nitrogen removal in wastewater. Anammox bacteria grows slowly, has a long generation time, and is susceptible to the environmental conditions. DO, Temperature, pH and organic can impact the process of anammox, so it is necessary to take careful methods to cultivate Anammox biomass. Depending on the purpose of improve water quality, appropriate treatment reactors and seed sludge should be selected to start ANAMMON process. The discovery of anaerobic ammonia oxidation, the reaction mechanism, influence application, the enrichment of anammox bacteria, physiological and biochemical characteristics of anammox bacteria, the start of anaerobic ammonia oxidation are reviewed in this paper.