water footprint and virtual water emerge as new concepts of international water resource studies in recent years and they also become prevailing topics in the study of international water resource at present. These concepts liberate the studies from the limitation of real water viewpoint and introduce the perspective of virtual water, which makes a vital contribution to the study of sustainable use of water resource. This paper introduces the internationally leading water resource footprint model and calculation method of virtual water into the water resource system of Jinan for the first time, giving a quantified measurement of the amount of virtual water contained in the main agricultural products and industrial products of Jinan. According to the calculation and analysis based on water footprint model of Jinan, it is concluded that Jinan is a net exporter of virtual water with an import dependence factor of 0, which directly endangers the water resource security of Jinan. Therefore, it is suggested to make adjustments on virtual water trade structures and strategies to upgrade industrial structures and increase the export volume of industrial products which contained less water, so as to use the water resource in a sustainable and effective way; with limited water resource, Jinan must seek innovations on water resource management concepts in addition to saving water and making better use of water resource, to alter consumption modes and implement the strategy of virtual water by introducing “outer source”, aiming to relieve water resource shortage through virtual water trade with no efforts spared.