This paper tests the long-term equilibrium relations and short-term dynamic relations by applying Johansen co-integration test and VECM model among the coal demand, economic aggregate, economic structure, energy consumption efficiency, and urbanization level of china. It shows that there is a long-term equilibrium relation among above variables. Then the long-term elasticity of coal demand to other variables is given. It also shows, in the short run, the T time coal demand will affected by T-2 time economic aggregate, T-2 time urbanization level, T-1 time coal demand, and T-2 time coal demand. At last, the paper gives suggestions on how to control coal consumption in china.