The rapid development of national economy has brought serious environmental pollution problems. The issue of emission reduction has become one of the most important missions in China. As one of the largest sources of energy consumption and pollution emission, the power generation industry plays an important role in the problem of emission reduction. According to Chinese actual conditions, this study takes into account the inter-regional difference between the tasks of environmental emission reduction and the corresponding costs due to various factors, and proposes an inter-regional power-generation economic exchange analysis model under environmental constraints. The model integrates the environmental constraints, as well as the transmission costs and transmission lines constraints, and provides the results of optimal exchange combinations. The analysis of an example indicates that the inter-regional economic power exchange can maximize inter-regional advantages and minimize the costs of economic dispatch, which requires a sound transmission system and transmission pricing system.