As an indispensable force component to composite structure, the seismic wave energy inputted into integral structure is dissipated by damping force working and plastic hysteresis of steel reinforced concrete column which is taken as research object. According to the condition that the SRC column is mainly used to dissipate the seismic wave energy, the ultimate energy dissipation capacity of SRC column subjected to cyclic loading is taken as the damage characterization. Based on the related theoretical analysis and experimental research, the method for calculating ultimate energy dissipation capacity of SRC column is proposed and the damage sensitivity of various design parameters which contain the section dimension, concrete strength degree and steel ratio are analyzed, then the influence laws of main design parameters impacted on damage evolution of SRC column are revealed in this paper. The research shows that sectional dimension is the most sensitive factor in the damage of SRC column and the steel ratio takes the second place, and then the strength of concrete is the most insensitive design parameter. The achievements will provide theoretical support for establishing the storey damage model of SRC frame structure under seismic excitation.