Scale, corrosion and the and biological growth in industrial water handling processes result in reduced water flow though pipes, reduced heat transfer, and pump failures. Preventative treatments for these problems are based upon chemical compounds that are most often toxic and environmentally persistent. Manufacturers continue to introduce new chemicals and treatment programs onto the market, and old products have been discontinued. Many manufacturers claim that the new chemical and treatments are more environmentally friendly and safer for the plant workers and the users. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has undertaken a research effort to look at these new chemical treatments. The objective of this work was to develop “green” water treatment chemicals that control biological growth, corrosion and scale while reducing or eliminating the generation of toxic substances during the manufacture, use, and disposal processes.