Three-dimension vision coordinates measurement presents many virtues such as high accuracy, flexible construction, simple operation, large measuring range and high measuring speed. So it has become a hot spot of application and research in many fields such as manufacturing, reverse engineering and computer aided surgery. In this paper, a 3D vision coordinates measurement system based on binocular stereo vision and a planar target has been designed and set up. The system’s composing and measuring principles are discussed. The geometric model and detail design of the planar target, which is one of the main factors affecting the system’s measuring stability and accuracy, are presented. A new algorithm for target calibration is proposed. The location and orientation of the planar target can be reconstructed according to rigid geometric transformation. Further results of calibration and measurement are verified experimentally, and a high geometrical accuracy can be achieved.